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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 82-85

A study of sociodemographic profile and level of awareness of the decision makers for organ donation of deceased organ donors in a Tertiary Care Hospital


1 Department of Hepatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Hospital Administration, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Date of Submission19-Aug-2018
Date of Acceptance09-Sep-2018
Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aditi Mehra
31, Vasant Vihar, Jalandhar, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijot.ijot_51_18

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  Abstract 


Aim: Organ transplants have developed into a successful therapy to treat end-stage organ disease. Family members play a prominent role in decisions related to organ donation of brain-dead patients. Having different imaginations about brain death among the people may be highly influenced by culture, experience, and other sociodemographic variables. Thus, the study was undertaken to analyze the sociodemographic profile of the decision makers for organ donation in case of potential deceased donors and to determine the level of awareness and its relation with the sociodemographic variables. Methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital of North India from January 2016 to August 2017. The current research is a qualitative study with exploratory approach. Data were collected through interviews with 59 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members. A purposive sampling method was used. Results: The results showed that most (76.3%) of the decision makers were totally unaware of the concept of organ donation before they were counseled for the same. The results showed that awareness of organ donation was dependent on gender, education, and monthly income. Most of the decision makers had only primary education. Although they were initially not aware about the concept, their decision-making was not influenced by the level of education. Majority (90%) of the females were unaware about the organ donation, but eventually consented for the cause. Conclusion: The scope of mass education and awareness can be expanded to further strengthen the program and improve the outreach.

Keywords: Awareness, deceased organ donation, sociodemographic variables


How to cite this article:
Bansal N, Koushal V, Mehra A. A study of sociodemographic profile and level of awareness of the decision makers for organ donation of deceased organ donors in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian J Transplant 2019;13:82-5

How to cite this URL:
Bansal N, Koushal V, Mehra A. A study of sociodemographic profile and level of awareness of the decision makers for organ donation of deceased organ donors in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian J Transplant [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 19];13:82-5. Available from: http://www.ijtonline.in/text.asp?2019/13/2/82/261841




  Introduction Top


In recent decades, organ transplants have developed into a successful therapy to treat organ failure.[1] India has an opt-in system (consent for donation is required) as opposed to opt-out system (implied consent), and the question of refusal of the donation by the next of kin after brain death diagnosis is often the biggest hindrance in pushing this program further.[2] Family members play a prominent role in donation decisions at time of death. Although organ transplant has brought new horizons of hope, it is accompanied with numerous cultural-, ethical-, and religion-related problems.[3] The decision for organ donation may be influenced by age, gender, education, income, and cultural and religious views about the body.[4],[5] This study was undertaken to study the sociodemographic profile of the family members who have been involved in the process by consenting to donate the organs of their loved ones and to study whether the awareness is related to the demographic variables. Moreover, this study will add contemporary findings to the literature that can be used in further development and implementation of organ donation initiatives.

The objectives of the current study were:

  • To analyze the sociodemographic profile of the decision makers for organ donation in potential deceased donors
  • To determine the level of awareness regarding organ donation in decision makers and the correlation with the sociodemographic variables.



  Methodology Top


Setting

The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital of North India from January 2016 to August 2017.

Design

The current research is a qualitative study with exploratory approach.


  Materials and Methods Top


Data were collected through unstructured interviews. Data were collected through interviews with 59 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members. A purposive sampling method was used to extract information.

Statistical analysis used

Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.


  Results Top


Of the 59 next of kin who gave consent for organ donation interviewed, only 14 (23.7%) were aware of the concept of organ donation and 45 (76.3%) were not aware earlier, and they were apprised and motivated by the counselors for the cause. Of these 59 next of kin, there were 37 males and 22 females [Figure 1]. However, 20 of these 22 females were not aware of the organ donation. Awareness among males was better as shown in [Table 1] (Chi-test – 4.153; P = 0.042). The next of kin giving consent (51%) were mostly spouses of the deceased organ donor. Most (81.3%) of the cases of deceased organ donation were medicolegal cases.
Figure 1: Gender-wise distribution of the decision makers

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Table 1: Association of awareness of organ donation of decision makers of deceased organ donor with demographic variables

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Among the study group, 73% were Hindu, 24% were Sikh, and 03% Muslim [Figure 2]. The awareness among the next of kin was not found to be dependent on the religion of the family in this study as shown in [Table 1] (P = 0.0538).
Figure 2: Religion-wise distribution of decision makers

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Most of the cases in which organ donation was performed were from the income group of > 45,000 INR [Figure 3]. The awareness was dependent on the total family income (Chi-test 12.111, P = 0.007). As shown in [Table 1], 44.5% of those with total family income >45,000 INR/month were aware of organ donation, while none with total family income <15,000 INR and only 5% of those between 15,000 and 30,000 INR were aware.
Figure 3: Percentage distribution of the decision makers based on the monthly family income

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Among those interviewed, most were primary educated, followed by graduates [Figure 4]. As revealed by the study, the awareness was dependent on the education status of the decision maker (P = 0.014). Fifty-seven percent of those who were graduates were already aware of organ donation, and the level of awareness was much lower in other groups [Table 1]. However, education does not seem to have an effect on the decision-making by the next of kin.
Figure 4: Percentage distribution of decision makers based on the level of education

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  Discussion Top


This study was conducted to assess the sociodemographic profile of the next of kin who actually gave consent for the organ donation of the deceased potential donor. It was intended to find out whether they were aware of organ donation before they had to actually go through the procedure and does the conversion in favor of the cause depend on their characteristics, so that appropriate target groups may be identified and relevant strategies may be deduced for further strengthening the program and bridge the gaps. Studies done in different parts of the country showed that awareness was higher in males and also increased with the level of education and socioeconomic status.[6]

The data of the present study highlight that gender had a strong impact on the awareness of the organ donation [Table 1], but not on the decision-making process. Similarly, total family income and educational level of the decision makers also had an effect on the awareness. However, though the illiterate and those with just primary education were not aware of the organ donation, the data showed that majority of those who eventually consented to donate organs of their loved ones were illiterate or those with primary education. That means if counseled and made aware, these groups acknowledge the benefits of the organ donation for the larger good despite their level of education. Majority of organ donation occur in medicolegal cases only.

Further study is needed to determine if interventions based on the characteristics identified in this study will increase consent to donation.


  Conclusion Top


Public education about organ donation to influence all parts of the society should be aimed at. Since the donation request usually occurs within the context of intense grief and despair, knowledge regarding demographic variables of decision makers of deceased organ donor helps to strengthen the counseling process and reduce ambiguity and conflict.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Volz Wenger A, Szucs TD. Predictors of family communication of one's organ donation intention in Switzerland. Int J Public Health 2011;56:217-23.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Pandit RA. Brain death and organ donation in India. Indian J Anaesth 2017;61:949-51.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Ormrod JA, Ryder T, Chadwick RJ, Bonner SM. Experiences of families when a relative is diagnosed brain stem dead: Understanding of death, observation of brain stem death testing and attitudes to organ donation. Anaesthesia 2005;60:1002-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Rodrigue JR, Cornell DL, Howard RJ. Organ donation decision: Comparison of donor and nondonor families. Am J Transplant 2006;6:190-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Alkhawari FS, Stimson GV, Warrens AN. Attitudes toward transplantation in U.K. Muslim Indo-Asians in West London. Am J Transplant 2005;5:1326-31.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Balajee KL, Ramachandran N, Subitha L. Awareness and attitudes toward organ donation in rural Puducherry, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2016;6:286-90.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

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Abstract
Introduction
Methodology
Materials and Me...
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