• Users Online: 37
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 94-98

The relevance of complement C4d staining in renal allograft biopsies


Department of Pathology, ESIC Model Hospital, Gurugram, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anju Khairwa
Department of Pathology, ESIC Model Hospital, Gurugram, Haryana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijot.ijot_60_19

Get Permissions

In renal transplant, the allograft is affected by many triggering agents such as innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, either mediated by macrophages and lymphocytes, or by soluble components antibodies and the complement system, which can ultimately lead to graft rejection. Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a predominant cause of allograft failure. Donor-specific antibodies, mostly reactive to human leukocyte antigen antigens, are now considered by pathologists and clinicians as a significant cause of early and late graft dysfunction and failure. Complement 4d (C4d) is a fragment of the classical complement pathway (that is a part of component C4), which is activated by antigen-antibody complexes. The diagnosis of AMR improves by detection of the complement fragment C4d in renal biopsy, and it has included for diagnosis of AMR in the year 2003. There is more development about C4d after inclusion in the diagnostic criteria of AMR. This review aims to evaluate pathogenesis and current relevance of C4d in AMR.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed453    
    Printed17    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded81    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal